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84), though his translation as “powerful” is also suggested by M4590r5 (Parthian), where the Living Spirit is addressed as (like Henning, see above), interpreting it as “bearer of the shears,” based on the shears that are Kartīr’s insignium as it appears on his hat in the rock reliefs, and suggested that it symbolized Kartīr’s function as passing down decisions (), which would mean approximately “famous” (1974, p. If the name does contain “shears,” it could, conceivably, be a reference to Kartīr’s being a eunuch (epithets referring to bodily defects not being rare; cf.

According to André Maricq, an unpublished coin in the Calcutta museum has the inscription It is also found in compounds: Kerdīr-šābuhr on a seal formerly in the Grand-ducal Cabinet in Florence (Mordtmann, 1864, p. Similarly, Wirāz is distressed and frightened at the sight of hell and begs his divine guides not to take him there, but they reassure him (53.4, ed. The prince takes the hand of Kartīr’s likeness and leads him across, walking in front, the woman behind, bringing up the rear. Another possibility is Warahrān, who, in the (or similar; see below), which the third prince holds in the hand, may be the “ladle” held in the left hand of the (divine) person confronting the naked soul on an ossuary from Central Asia (see below), whom Grenet identifies as Wahman. 297-98), could be an instrument small enough to be held in the hand, which then, like the bridge, changed size—a miniature well or a bucket. That the ladle plays a role in the funerary rites is clear from its depiction on the ossuaries from Central Asia (Grenet, 1996, p. Thus, the main purpose of the inscriptions was to convince those in doubt and those who were not concerned about the other world (§37 ) toward the gods and the kings that he was promoted. There is therefore no basis in the inscriptions for assuming that Kartīr initiated a reform or reintroduced orthodoxy, as sometimes suggested (Zaehner, 1955, p. Kartīr’s aim was to strengthen the existing Mazdayasnian tradition. The fundamental differences between Mazdayasnianism and Manicheism are found in the basic tenets of the two systems, in their cosmogonies, anthropogonies, and eschatologies, as presented in Iranian terminology.Focus is on ethics (good or bad behavior), which, as in other major religions, is encouraged with reference to what awaits the soul after death: rewards for the good, punishment for the wicked. Bactrian has Kirdiro-ouarauran for *Kirdīr-warahrān (Sims-Williams, 2005, p. 16, n.), and in Brāhmī script we have, from the Shatial Bridge, Śrī-kirdira-piroysasya ( “crown,” but thought that the word referred to the “chaplet,” that is, the diadem, that Ohrmazd holds out to the kings in the investiture reliefs (1870, pp. Theodore Nöldeke, however, in the preface to Andreas and Stolze (1882), tentatively suggested it might mean “friend” or protector.” With the discoveries of ŠKZ and KKZ, when it became clear that the word was a proper name, the older interpretations were discarded (Sprengling, 1953a, p. “having active strength” in the name Kerdīr-šābuhr (cf. As an adjective, the word is found in Manichean Parthian (M3), where it was first thought to mean “quiver” (Salemann, 1908, p. After Šāpūr, he was promoted twice, as described in his inscriptions, where he lists his titles as inscribed on official documents under four kings (see Henning, 1954, pp. 62), both in the description of his career in the first part of the longer inscriptions and in the summary at the end of the inscriptions (§38), including KNRb: . , people had no doubt, but after the devastation caused by Alexander, whom the Foul Spirit had sent for this purpose, people came to harbor doubt, and rivals to the Mazdayasnian tradition began to proliferate.